Self-Balancing EV3 Robot – Robotsquare (2024)

Self-Balancing EV3 Robot – Robotsquare (1)

This tutorial will show you how to build and program a self-balancing LEGO MINDSTORMS EV3 robot that can drive around a room. You can build and program BALANC3R (left) or Gyro Boy (right). Once your robot is up and running, you’ll be challenged to customize the construction and program to invent your own self-balancing robot.

Step 1: Building a robot

To begin, choose the robot you want to build, and follow the respective step-by-step building instructions.

Requirements for BALANC3R:

Requirements for Gyro Boy:

  • 1x LEGO MINDSTORMS EV3 Education Core Set #45544
  • Click to go to the building instructions.

Step 2: Installing the EV3 Gyro Sensor block

If you’re using the LEGO MINDSTORMS EV3 Home Edition Software, you’ll need to install the EV3 Gyro Sensor block before you can program your robot.

  • Follow the steps in this article to install the block.
  • If you’re using the LEGO MINDSTORMS EV3 Student Edition, this block is already installed.

Step 3: Download the balancing robot project

  • Right-click this link, click “Save Link As,” and save the project file to your computer.
  • Launch the EV3 programming software, and open the downloaded project file.

Before you run the programs, let’s briefly examine how they work. The project includes four example programs, two for each robot:

  • BALANC3R-Basics: Balance in place, turn right, and turn left
  • BALANC3R-RemoteControl: Control the robot with the infrared remote
  • GyroBoy-Basics: Balance in place, turn right, and turn left
  • GyroBoy-AvoidObstacles: Drive around while avoiding obstacles

Each program consists of two configuration blocks, a balance loop, and a drive control loop, as shown in the figure below.

  • The configuration blocks let you specify what the robot looks like, so that the robot knows how to balance. For example, the second setting of the first setting specifies the diameter of the robot’s wheels. The example programs come preconfigured with the correct settings for BALANC3R and Gyro Boy if you use the LEGO EV3 Gyro Sensor. If you use the NXT HiTechnic Gyro, change the Choose Sensor setting on the Initialize My Block to 1.
  • The balance loop keeps the robot balanced. It measures and calculates the position and speed of the motors, and it determines the robot’s angular velocity (how fast it’s falling), as well as the robot’s angle relative to the ground. In turn, it uses this sensor information to calculate how to drive the motors in order to keep the robot up right. You won’t need to change any setting of the blocks in this loop.
  • The drive control loop controls the speed and steering of the robot as it drives around a room using a simplified move block. This is the part of the program that you can easily customize to create your own program.

Step 4: Running the basic example program

You are now ready to download the example program to your robot.

  • If you’ve built BALANC3R, begin with BALANC3R-Basics.
  • If you’ve built Gyro Boy, begin with GyroBoy-Basics.

To start the program:

  • Hold the robot upright with its wheels on the ground. Do not hold it tightly, but hold it loosely so that it’s just between falling forward and falling backward.
  • Select the program and start it with the center button on the EV3 brick.
  • You’ll first hear one beep. Keep holding the robot in place.
  • You’ll then hear a double beep. Now release the robot and let it balance.

Your robot should now repeatedly balance in place for 7 seconds, turn right for 7 seconds, and turn left for 7 seconds.

Follow these steps if the robot doesn’t balance:

  • If it doesn’t work on the first try, repeat the steps above a few times. After a while, you’ll know which is the correct “upright” starting position.
  • Do not try to “help” the robot balance. Of course you should catch the robot before it falls, but trying to keep it upright with your hands is counter-effective.
  • Verify that the cables have been plugged correctly according to the building instructions:
    • The two Large motors should be connected to ports A and D. (If you’ve accidentally interchanged them, that’s fine. The robot will confuse left and right turns, but balancing is unaffected.)
    • The Gyro Sensor should be connected to input port 2, regardless of which sensor you use.
  • Verify that you’ve mounted the Gyro Sensor correctly according to the building instructions.
  • Verify that the batteries are fresh.
  • Verify that you are using the latest EV3 firmware (1.06H or 1.06E as of this writing).

Step 5: Running the second example program

If you’ve successfully programmed your robot in the previous step, it’s easy to try out the other example program for your robot. The robot balances in exactly the same way, but the robot’s movements are a little more interesting:

  • BALANC3R-RemoteControl lets you control BALANC3R with the infrared remote, as shown in the video above. Just press the buttons on the remote to make the robot drive forward, backward, and turn. (You’ll figure out the controls quickly.) If you don’t press any buttons, the robot just balances in the same place.
  • GyroBoy-AvoidObstacles makes Gyro Boy drive around a room while backing up from obstacles, as shown in the video above. Before you run the program, make sure that the white beams of both the robot’s arms point downward. The program relies on this starting position to make sure the Ultrasonic Sensor doesn’t detect the floor as an ‘obstacle’ when the robot’s left arm points downward.

Step 6: Customizing the program

As you’ve learned earlier, the balance loop keeps the robot balanced while the drive control loop controls the robot’s speed and steering. The two loops run simultaneously, or at the same time. In the drive control loop, you use the Move My Block to specify the robot’s speed and steering, as shown below.

Self-Balancing EV3 Robot – Robotsquare (6)

The robot keeps driving or turning at the specified rate until you run the block again with different values for speed and steering. The figure below shows the Move My Block in action in the basic example program you ran in step 4. The first Move block sets both steering and speed to 0, which makes the robot balance in place without turning. Next, a Wait block pauses the loop for 7 seconds, keeping the robot in the same place. Then, a second Move block sets the steering value to 20, making the robot turn to the right. After another 7 second wait, the robot starts tuning left by setting the steering value to -20.

Now that you’ve learned how to control the robot, it’s time to put your skills to the test with programming challenges. To solve these challenges, you can use the techniques from the LEGO MINDSTORMS EV3 Discovery Book, presented throughout chapters 1-9. Instead of using Move Steering blocks in On mode as in the example programs, you use Move My Blocks as shown above.

Challenges for BALANC3R:

  • Make your robot drive around a room while avoiding obstacles with the Infrared Sensor in Proximity mode.
  • Make your robot follow the Infrared Beacon. As you move the beacon around, the robot should follow you.
  • Attach the Color Sensor in front of the robot’s wheels, and make the robot follow a line. You can print line following tracks for your robot from here.

Challenges for Gyro Boy:

  • Make your robot drive in different directions based on the color it detects with the Color Sensor. To accomplish this, make the robot wait for the sensor to see either a yellow, red, green, or blue object. Then, make it drive in a certain direction for 3 seconds based on the detected color, before waiting for a new color signal.
  • Make your robot show different types of faces/eyes on the screen as you interact with its sensors. Show an angry face if you press the Touch Sensor, show a happy face when you trigger the Color Sensor, and so on.

Step 7: Making your own balancing robot

In the previous steps, you’ve made BALANC3R or Gyro Boy balance on two wheels, and you learned to control it with the Move My Block. Now that you’ve got the essential components working, you’re ready to customize both your robot and your program. For example, you can turn BALANC3R into a life-like humanoid with arms, and make it talk to you. Or, go crazy and make any EV3 vehicle balance on its rear wheels. What about a self-balancing F1 style race car? Whatever you make, let others know in the comments below. Happy building!

Step 8: Further reading

In order to make this tutorial accessible for everyone with an EV3 set, I didn’t cover the details of the balancing algorithm. Rather, the design of this program makes it possible to control the robot even if you don’t know exactly how the balancing mechanism works.

However, many papers have been written about self-balancing robots, and I encourage you to read more on the subject as you explore the details of the EV3 program provided on this page. The balancing algorithm in this program is based on a Bachelor thesis written by Steven Witzand, which provides a good overview of the subject, along with Java source code that implements the balancing algorithm. In turn, this paper relies on the design and algorithm used in the NXTway-GS by Yorihisa Yamamoto, which you can study for further detail.

Self-Balancing EV3 Robot – Robotsquare (2024)


How do I turn exactly 90 degrees EV3? ›

How do you Make the Robot Turn 90 Degrees? Ans. Try using the port view to measure the turn and then input the correct number of degrees. Your robot baseball player must run to second base, turn around and come back to first.

Are EV3 robots discontinued? ›

The LEGO MINDSTORMS EV3 Programmer app will be removed from current app stores at the end of June 2021.

Is Lego Mindstorms EV3 discontinued? ›

The LEGO MINDSTORMS Education EV3 retirement is global. The solution will be discontinued worldwide on June 30th, 2021.

What are the 4 sensors in EV3? ›

port 1 = touch, port 2 = gyro, port 3 = color, port 4 = infrared or ultrasonic. As in the standard Lego EV3 software, many sensors can be used in different modes.

Does a 360 degree turn make the robot turn completely around? ›

360 degrees of rotation corresponds to one full turn of a motor. You can control the speed and direction of your robot using the Power Left and Power Right inputs. Use Brake at End to stop your robot after exactly the specified number of degrees."

How much time does it take for a robot to turn 90? ›

Set the 'Seconds pass' (replace?) to an amount of time in seconds to have the robot turn right exactly 90°. Minimum amount of time is 0.01 seconds. Maximum amount of time is 327.67 seconds.

Why is Lego EV3 retiring? ›

You, as our partners, have been vital contributors to this success and we cannot thank you enough for that. But as we celebrate the success of this great product, we must ensure that we evolve together with the landscape of education. That is why we have decided to retire MINDSTORMS EV3 during summer 2021.

What did LEGO replace the EV3 with? ›

Today, the LEGO Group has announced 51515 Robot Inventor, replacing the EV3 set, 31313, after 7 years. Based around the same hub as the Spike Prime ducational system (set 34567) .

What is better than Lego Mindstorms? ›

#1 Cubit STEAM Kits. We might be a little biased when it comes to Cubit, but their kits are certainly a great alternative to Lego Mindstorms. Cubit Kits include real electronic hardware enclosed in casings. That way you can work with motors and sensors similar to what engineers would use in industry.

Which is better EV3 or NXT? ›

Brick. Figure 6, the EV3 brick, is faster and has a stronger processor compared to Figure 7, the NXT brick. However, the EV3 brick takes longer to start up than the NXT; this may be something to consider for those who use these for competitions.

What is EV3 stand for? ›

LEGO Mindstorms EV3 is the third generation robotics kit in LEGO's Mindstorms line. It is the successor to the second generation LEGO Mindstorms NXT kit. The "EV" designation refers to the "evolution" of the Mindstorms product line.

Does LEGO still make Mindstorm? ›

The latest LEGO® MINDSTORMS® evolution

5 unique designs to build, plus fun coding and challenging activities to complete with the Robot Inventor App.

How do you turn something 90 degrees? ›

Transformations - Rotate 90 Degrees Around The Origin - YouTube

How do you turn a shape 90 degrees? ›

90 Degree Rotation

When rotating a point 90 degrees counterclockwise about the origin our point A(x,y) becomes A'(-y,x). In other words, switch x and y and make y negative.

How do you turn a point 90 degrees? ›

The rule for a rotation by 90° about the origin is (x,y)→(−y,x) .

How do you do a 90 degree turn? ›

Steer the vehicle through at least five left and five right 90-degree turns, maintaining the correct lane position (if on a road). Turn the steering wheel back to the centre position after each turn (rather than just letting it turn back by itself).

Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Pres. Carey Rath

Last Updated:

Views: 5611

Rating: 4 / 5 (41 voted)

Reviews: 80% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Pres. Carey Rath

Birthday: 1997-03-06

Address: 14955 Ledner Trail, East Rodrickfort, NE 85127-8369

Phone: +18682428114917

Job: National Technology Representative

Hobby: Sand art, Drama, Web surfing, Cycling, Brazilian jiu-jitsu, Leather crafting, Creative writing

Introduction: My name is Pres. Carey Rath, I am a faithful, funny, vast, joyous, lively, brave, glamorous person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.