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And let's consider what a tank battalion is, its composition, how many tanks it uses in combat - we will study all the nuances. So, a battalion is called an independent military unit, consisting either of a pair of mouths, or from a company and a separate platoon. As a rule, there are 800 people in such an army. The division in artillery and air squadrons in aviation are considered the smallest units that have headquarters.
At first the term "battalion" denoted a quarter of the battle, which was divided into four small squares to reduce losses from enemy artillery fire. In general, the battle is called the construction of pikiners square 100X100, forming a "forest peak".
The battalion is a structural unit in the compound or in the regiment. If he is in the regiment not in a single quantity, he is assigned an ordinal number in the internal numbering. For example: the third paratrooper or the first motorized rifle battalion, etc. And if it is in the composition of the union or the connection? Then the battalion is called a separate battalion - it is a military unit. And in its full name, an adjective "separate" is inscribed.
The brigade in the Armed Forces of the USSR / Armed Forces of Russia can be called either a military unit or a compound - it depends on the specific case. In military units, battalions constitute a brigade: the adjective "separate" is not used in their internal numbering. In the compounds they are called separate.
If the battalion is temporarily formed, and its servicemen are collected from different units or from different military units to solve any tasks, it is called a consolidated one.
The tank army
In tank armies, the minimum tactical unit is called a tank battalion. The number of tanks in it can vary. Organizationally, the tank divisions are not only part of tank regiments and brigades, but also motorized rifle formations. They can also act as a separate unit at the headquarters of the army or corps. Tank troops do not contain parts that are included in the motorized rifle battalions to enhance firepower. They themselves have tremendous firepower, so the states that belong to them do not need reinforcements. The only exception is the anti-aircraft missile platoon, which was introduced into the tank separate units. So, what does the tank battalion consist of? The composition (staff) is as follows:
- Material support platoon.
- Technical maintenance platoon.
- Medical Center.
- Platoon of communication.
- Three companies are tank.
And how many tanks in the tank battalion of the Russian Armed Forces? In its staff there is thirty-one cars, and this is only when it is part of a tank brigade or regiment. If the division is included in the ranks of the motorized rifle brigade or the regiment, it contains forty combat vehicles. This difference is due to the number of tanks in the tank platoon.
Ah, the Russian tank battalion, the composition, the Russian equipment and weapons - all Slavic, unique, Rus blows, recalls its monumental victories in the fields of great battles! However, we will leave aside the lyrics and continue the review.
It must be said that each platoon of the unit belongs to a tank regiment and consists of three tanks, and a platoon of a tank army of a motorized rifle brigade consists of four tanks.
This rule for the creation of tank units was introduced in the Soviet Army in the fifties, just when motorized rifle troops had just begun to form . This nuance was explained simply: in accordance with the rules of Soviet tactics, in the case of large-scale combat operations, a tank battalion, included in a motorized rifle regiment or brigade, was scattered over motorized rifle divisions for fire reinforcement. Thus, it was required to increase the number of combat vehicles in a tank platoon to four. The same rules said that tank regiments or brigades were obliged to act in the direction of concentrating the most important strike against the enemy as part of a single company (tank company). To perform such a task, it was considered optimal to have three tanks in a platoon.
The number of the tank battalion - its personnel in the brigade or tank regiment - numbered 174 people on the T-72. A motorized rifle regiment or brigade consisted of 213 people.
Subdivisions in the Armed Forces of the USSR and the Armed Forces of Russia
The composition of the tank battalion of the Russian Federation deserves special attention: we will consider it in more detail. Everybody knows that the battalion is the smallest tactical unit in the land forces of the USSR and the Russian Federation. The postal address of the military unit of the Russian brigade has the number of this part with the inclusion of letters. For example, "w / h 03426-B" stands for "the second battalion of military unit No. 03426".
The regular category of the army commander (battalion commander) is a lieutenant colonel, and a separate or training division of a military educational institution is a colonel.
If the Russian tank battalion is a separate organization (military unit), its officers include such positions as the head of the secret section, the head of the finance department, the head of the clothing and food service and so on. These established posts increase the autonomy of the work of individual battalions in the administrative and economic direction.
Legendary separate tank brigades
What is a separate tank battalion? This unit of tank troops, a tactical unit that is part of the armed forces of most countries. In the Russian armed forces of Russia, both in the modern and the Soviet period, there is both a real and a conditional name. Example of a valid name: Alma-Ata 678th Guards Order Otan tank separate battalion named after the Panfilov Heroes. And the conditional name looks like this: Military unit No. 54321.
The staff category of the commander of a tank separate tactical unit is the lieutenant colonel.
The first tank unit in the territory of the RSFSR was the tank division at the Ukrainian Council of People's Commissars. It was remotely like a tank separate battalion. It was created in Kharkov by the paint of A.I. Selyavkin in 1919 from French trophy tanks FT-17, captured from expeditionary allied forces near Odessa, in the south of Russia. A little later this first tank unit in the USSR was modified into the tank squadron of the Red Army. Its main armor was the captured tanks of the Englishmen Mark V.
Soviet Russia understood the importance of tanks in military affairs. Despite the economic difficulties that arose after the cessation of the civil war, the country continued to produce them.
Since 1930 the defense industry of the Soviet Union has started the production of various tanks. It was then that the course was taken for motorization and mechanization of the Armed Forces. The leadership set the task of saturating the units and divisions of the Red Army by means of motorization and mechanization of various arms.
In 1932 - on a territorial basis - three tank separate battalions were built. They were placed in industrial areas, where the production of tanks was set up.
By the beginning of 1936, six tank regiments had been formed, fifteen regiments of cavalry divisions, four mechanized corps, six mechanized separate brigades and an incredible number of tank separate battalions and companies.
For what purposes were the tank separate divisions formed in the rifle divisions formed? They were needed to strengthen the rifle formations and units in case of breakthrough of the enemy defense. They had to fight along with the infantry, not moving away from it for a long distance. They were called tanks of direct infantry support (TNPP, the current BMP).
The organizational and staff structure was not always the same, so the tank separate battalions could be subordinated to rifle corps as well as to armies.
Years of the Great Patriotic War
The Great Patriotic War began with the colossal losses of armor and tank vehicles. Quickly to restore the damaged mechanisms was not possible, there was no tank reserve, so the command of the USSR Armed Forces took care of the equipment and used it only to protect the infantry. Tanks had to work from ambushes: thus the stability of the defense of small arms increased.
What was the tank battalion in the autumn of 1941? The composition remained the same, but according to the directive letter of the Supreme Headquarters of July 15, 1941, all mechanized corps were disbanded. The tank brigades and units have become the main organizational units of the Red Army TV.
In September 1941, it was possible to observe the appearance of individual tank battalions of a variety of standard tank numbers - from 29 to 26 combat units. Large-scale tank and armored units for the organization of offensive operations of the Armed Forces of the USSR did not.
In the Red Army on December 1, 1941, there were 68 tank brigades and 37 separate tank battalions. They were used mainly to support the infantry. Such an organization was forced under the conditions of 1941.
A little later, the defense potential of the USSR made it possible to quickly establish mass production of tanks. Now the tank army was the most important organizational unit of the Red Army's TV.
At the moment, the main organizational unit of TV is a tank separate battalion or brigade. The organizational-staff composition of the tank tactical unit includes:
- Material support platoon.
- Medical platoon.
- Technical maintenance platoon.
- Platoon of management.
- The first tank company, on T-90.
- Tank second company, on T-90.
- Tank third company, on T-90.
- Shooting motorized company, on the BTR-T.
- Rocket anti-aircraft battery, on Thor.
In total, 93 combat vehicles are in the organizational and staff structure of the tank separate battalion.
The Ukrainian Tank Division
And now consider the Ukrainian tank battalion (line-up). Ukraine after all, like all other countries of the post-Soviet space, after the collapse of the Union, the formation data modeled at its own discretion. What, then, is the mechanized separate Chuguevo-Ropshinsky Order of the Red Banner and October Revolution brigade? It is located at: A / h A-0501, the village of Klugino-Bashkirovka, Chuguevsky district, Kharkiv region.
The organization and composition of the brigade are as follows:
- A platoon commandant.
What is its tank battalion? Its composition is as follows:
- The staff consists of three people.
- Management - five people.
- Three tank companies. Each company has a control, three tank platoons of twelve men each. In each platoon there are four T-64B / T-64BM "Bulat" tanks. There is also a company commander's tank. Altogether there are thirteen tanks and 41 men.
- The anti-aircraft missile platoon, which consists of sixteen employees. It is equipped with nine units of MANPADS "Strela-3".
- Engineer-sapper platoon, consisting of eleven employees.
- A communication center that serves twenty people.
- 45 employees work in the company.
- There are four people working in the first-aid post.
So, the tank battalion has the following composition: 314 people, of which 34 officers, 8 warrant officers, 60 sergeants and 212 soldiers. At the disposal of the formation, the following equipment is provided: forty T-64B / T-64BM Bulat tanks (39 cars for privates and one for the battalion commander), one BREM, one BMP-1K, one BMP-1KH, nine PZRK, one BRM-1 , Sixteen trucks, twelve special cars.
The tank division of the Wehrmacht called the combined army compound. It consisted of tank units and motorized infantry, artillery, air defense, communications and other auxiliary units. Of course, over time, there was a change in the number of divisions. Tank and motorized units, located in the composition of divisions, were also modified.
The tank division was considered the most important tool for the tactics of blitzkrieg. It should be noted that other armies of the world used tanks, usually to support the actions of infantry. Unlike them, in the Wehrmacht the tank forces acted independently - they carried out a breach of the enemy's defense deep into hundreds of kilometers. To achieve the goal of the division in its composition had a motorized infantry, which moved on armored vehicles and trucks. In addition, it towed tractors. Since 1943, self-propelled artillery has appeared in the tank division.
And what ensured the success of the Wehrmacht at the beginning of World War II? Of course, the coordinated actions of assault aviation and tanks, coordinated with the strategic moves of the command - courageous and unexpected for the enemy.
By June 22, 1941, there were seventeen tank divisions on the Eastern Front. The High Command of the Army in reserve had two detachments. Eleven divisions were also deployed in tank regiments of two battalion staff (147 vehicles in staff), eight formations were deployed in tank regiments of the three-battalion composition (according to the staff of 209 vehicles).
The basic tactical unit of the German tank forces was the tank battalion. By the way, the Wehrmacht had a certain individuality. At the time of the invasion of the USSR, the tank battalion had three companies of light tanks and the only company of medium tanks. In addition, he had a platoon of communication. Each company of light tanks had four platoons, and each had five "iron giants". In addition, the two cars were in the control platoon. A company of medium tanks had three platoons.
When the new medium-sized Pantera tanks entered the battalion, its composition was reformatted. Since 1943, it consisted of four companies with three squad members (five tanks each) and two control platoon tanks. It should be noted that there were battalions of "Tigers" of three companies: three platoons were equipped with four "iron giants" each, and in the platoon of the control there were two iron cars. In general, the company disposed of fourteen tanks.
Armament of the Wehrmacht
From 1939 to 1942 the Wehrmacht had medium Sd Kfz 251 and light Sd Kfz 250 armored personnel carriers. Success on the battlefield was also achieved by light tanks Pz.I, Pz.II, Czech Pz.35 (t), Pz.38 (t), medium Pz.III, Pz.IV, armored vehicles and other vehicles.
Since the end of 1940, the tank divisions have begun to reorganize. Now the main machine of the light tank arm was assigned Pz-III, and the middle one - Pz-IV. The tankmen had personal weapons consisting of a pistol Walther P38, a submachine gun MP40 and a grenade.
In 1943-1945 the armament of the Wehrmacht changed and it looked like this:
- 1943 - modified versions of Pz.IV, Pz.V "Panther".
- Tank fighters and heavy tanks "Yagdtigr", "Tiger", SAU "Yagdpantera", "Royal Tiger", "Ferdinand" were manned into separate battalions of heavy tanks.
502nd Tank Heavy Division
The first formation formation of the Wehrmacht during the Second World War was the 502nd heavy tank battalion. He was armed with the newest tanks, "Tiger I". The army was created on May 25, 1942, and on April 27, 1945, its last tank was hit. Commanded the formation of Otto Karius - German as-tank driver. He destroyed more than one hundred and fifty "iron colossi" and the opponent's SAU. This achievement was considered one of the highest in the Second World War. Of course, there were other German tank masters - Michael Wittmann and Kurt Knispel. Otto fought on the tanks "Tiger", Pz.38, PT-SAU "Yagdtigr". He is also the author of an interesting book "Tigers in the mud."
It should be noted that the 502nd Tank Heavy Battalion was the first unit to receive brand new Tiger I vehicles in August 1942. At first, only the first company was equipped with tanks of this type. By the way, the first tanks "Tiger I" were made with a caterpillar tape, completely unprotected from getting dirt: in this form they took part in the battles. It is interesting that the mammoth was the emblem of the formation.
And the second company of the battalion received the Tigers only in December 1942. In 1943 and 1944, the losses of these "iron giants" in the unit were systematically replenished. It was one of the few battalions that did not need a full restoration. He used the "Tigers I" in battle until April 1945.
In France in the spring of 1944 the first and second companies received tanks equipped with a filtration system of Feifel. The tower boards of these iron cars were protected by caterpillar tracks. In addition, most tanks could boast of such protection on each side of the hull. By the way, then the zimmerite coating was absent - it was started to be applied a little later, on the Eastern Front.
For the entire period of its existence, the battalion used in battle almost all the brands of the "Tiger".
501st Tank Heavy Division
The second formation formation of the Wehrmacht was the 501st Tank Heavy Battalion. At that time he received the newest heavy tanks Tiger I. The battalion was created on May 25, 1942 in Erfurt with the help of the junction of the 502nd and 501st heavy mouths. The first company was created on the basis of the 501st heavy company, the second company - on the basis of the 502nd.
The size of the tank battalion looked like this: in addition to heavy mouths, Panzer-Ersatz-Abteilung 1 personnel stationed in Erfurt was included. In addition, he had at the disposal of the cadets of the artillery school, which was in Putlos.
And how many tanks in the tank battalion were at war on the battlefield? The Armament of this formation was originally planned to put the "Tigers" Porsche. A little later it was decided to equip the tanks "Henschel". In general, the "Tigers" entered service only in August 1942. At that time, only the 502nd Battalion had the right to receive these amazing cars as soon as possible. According to the staff, in this small army there were to be twenty heavy "Tigers" and sixteen medium Panzer III.
From the port of Reggio di Calabria (Italy) to Tunis on November 20, 1942 was sent to the 501st Tank Battalion. The number of tanks he had enough to achieve victory in battle. In northern Africa, German-Italian troops were defeated, the battalion was slightly modified in Paderborn. Now it consisted of three heavy tank companies. Further, the renewed army was sent to the Eastern Front, to the Minsk region. A little later the battalion successfully fought near Krakow and Prague.
In December 1944, he was renamed into 424th and transferred to operational subordination to the twenty-fourth tank corps from the Fourth Panzer Army. And in February 1945, the 512th heavy battalion, a tank destroyer, was created from the remnants of the unit.
And how to study the modern Ukrainian tank battalion (composition)? 2014 is coming to an end, and we still do not have information about it, which is so interesting to fans of these heavy vehicles. What he really is? But the whole secret is that this army does not exist yet! At the moment, it is only planned to create an additional battalion in the Zaporozhye region, manned with tanks and various military equipment. On March 19, 2014, the Ukrainian government decided to strengthen the border areas of the country, which led to the appearance of this project. A place is already being prepared for the deployment of one tank battalion. Well, every country must take care of its own security and protect its borders.